These organisms belong to the plant kingdom. They have cells with
cellulose cell walls, if the cells are exposed to light then most of them will also
These are plants which have conducting tissues (xylem and phloem). The
tracheophyta consist consist of two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms.
This group consists of the flowering plants, the plants all have flowers
though they are not always obvious. They produce seeds which are found inside a fruit.
These seeds are formed from fertilisation of ovules which are enclosed in the ovary of the
pistil. After ripening the ovary forms the fruit.
These plants have embryos with two seed leaves (2 cotyledons) so when the
plant germinates it has two leaves. The veins of the leaves are arranges in a network
The flowers of dicotyledons have sepals and petals which are arranged in
groups of 4 or 5 (or multiples of 4 or 5). Their pollen grains mostly have three furrows
Woody stemmed dicotyledons show secondary thickening by growing new rings
This group has seeds contained in a pod. Most legumes have specialised
root nodules which contain bacteria of the Rhizobium genus which have a
mutualistic relationship with the host plant. These bacteria carry out nitrogen fixation
converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form which can be absobed from the nodule and used
by the plant.
This family includes peas, beans, gorse and lupins. They are sometimes
referred to as Fabaceae. Members of this family can be recognised by their flowers.
The flower has a large petal at the top, called the banner (or standard)
that develops outside of the others before the flower has opened, two lateral petals
called wings, and two lower petals that are usually fused to form the keel that encloses
the reproductive parts of the flower.
Flowers have a piston arrangement to disperse pollen. The outer stamens
(5) act as a piston so that the weight of the bee as it lands on the keel squeezes
pollen through the opening at the tip of the keel. Next the stigma protrudes through the
opeing and makes contact with the bee.